Free Hinduism Essays
Hinduism is an Indian religion, or a way of life.[note 1] Hinduism is widely practiced in South Asia mainly in India and Nepal. Hinduism is the oldest religion in the world,[note 2] and Hindus refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition," or the "eternal way," beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a [note 3] combination[note 4] of different Indian cultures and traditions,[note 5] with diverse roots.[note 6] Hinduism has no founder and origins of Hinduism is unknown. What we now call Hinduism have roots in cave paintings that have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c. 30,000 BCE in Bhimbetka, near present-day Bhopal, in the Vindhya Mountains in the Madhya Pradesh." There was no concept of religion in India and Hinduism was not religion.Hinduism as a religion started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the Vedic period (1500 BCE to 500 BCE).
Hinduism contains a wide range of philosophies, and is linked by the concepts, like rituals, cosmology,Texts, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are divided into Śruti ("heard") and Smṛti ("remembered"). These texts discuss philosophy, mythology, Vedicyajna, Yoga, agamicrituals, and temple building, and many more. Major scriptures in Hinduism include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, and the Agamas.
There are 4 goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma (duties), Artha (prosperity), Kama (desires/passions) and Moksha (liberation/freedom/salvation);karma (action, intent and consequences), Saṃsāra (cycle of rebirth), and the various Yogas (paths or practices to attain moksha). Hindu rituals include puja (worship) and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, and occasional pilgrimages. Some Hindus leave their social world and become sanyasi to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, non-violence (ahimsa), patience, self-restraint, and compassion, among others.[web 1] The four largest sects of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.
Hinduism is the world's third largest religion, There are approximately 1.15 billion Hindus which are 15-16% of the global population.[web 2] Majority of the Hindus live in India, Nepal and Mauritius. Hindus are also found in other countries.
Etymology[change | change source]
The word Hindu is taken from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, which is Sanskrit name for the Indus River which lies on the border of India and Pakistan.[note 7] According to Gavin Flood, The word Hindu was used by Persians for the people who live beyond the Indus River, Inscription of Darius I which was written around 550–486 BCE also refer Hindu as the people who live beyond the Indus River. These records didn't refer Hindu as a religion. The earliest record which refer Hindu as religion may be the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, and 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by 'Abd al-Malik Isami.[note 8]
Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta while hndstn (pronounced Hindustan) is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, in which both inscription refer Hindu as a geographical term rather than religious. The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By 1300, Hindustan became a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus".[note 9]
The term Hindu was later used in some Sanskrit texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century BengaliGaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas (foreigners) or Mlecchas (barbarians), with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma". In the end of the 18th century the European merchants and colonists began to call followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism, then spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.
Definitions[change | change source]
Hinduism is diverse on ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist. Because of the wideness and openness of Hinduism, arriving at a definition is difficult. Hinduism has been defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and "a way of life."[note 1] From a Western point of view, Hinduism like other faiths is referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion.
The study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism,[note 10] and have also been taken over by critics of the Western view on India.[note 11]
Beliefs[change | change source]
Hindu beliefs include (but are not restricted to) Dharma (ethics/duties), Samsāra (the continuing cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth), Karma (Every action has a reaction), Moksha (liberation from samsara or liberation in this life), and the various Yogas (paths or practices).
Purusharthas (objectives of human life)[change | change source]
Main article: Purusharthas
See also: Initiation, Dharma, Artha, Kāma, and Mokṣa
Hindism have accepted four proper goals or aims of human life: Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha. These are known as the Puruṣārthas:
Dharma (righteousness, ethics)[change | change source]
Dharma is considered one of the most important goal of a human being in Hinduism. Dharma is considered Important because it is dharma which makes running of Universe and life possible, and includes duties, virtues and "right way of living". Hindu Dharma includes the religious duties, moral rights and duties of each individual, as well as behaviors that enable social order, right conduct, and those that are virtuous. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad states it as:
Nothing is higher than Dharma. The weak overcomes the stronger by Dharma, as over a king. Truly that Dharma is the Truth (Satya); Therefore, when a man speaks the Truth, they say, "He speaks the Dharma"; and if he speaks Dharma, they say, "He speaks the Truth!" For both are one.
—Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, 1.4.xiv 
In the Mahabharata, Krishna says it is Dharma which is holding both this-worldly and other-worldly affairs. (Mbh 12.110.11). The word Sanātana means eternal, perennial, or forever; thus, Sanātana Dharma means that it is the dharma that has neither beginning nor end.
Artha (livelihood, wealth)[change | change source]
Artha is second goal of life in Hinduism which means pursuit of wealth for livelihood, and economic prosperity. It includes political life, diplomacy and material well-being. The Artha includes all "means of life", activities and resources that enables one to be in a state one wants to be in, wealth, career and financial security. The aim of artha is considered an important aim of human life in Hinduism.
Kāma (sensual pleasure)[change | change source]
Main article: Kama
Kāma (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम) means desire, wish, passion, pleasure of the senses, the enjoyment of life, affection, or love, with or without sexual connotations. In Hinduism, Kama is considered an important and healthy goal of human life when pursued without sacrificing Dharma, Artha and Moksha.
Mokṣa (liberation, freedom from samsara)[change | change source]
Main article: Moksha
Moksha (Sanskrit: मोक्षmokṣa) or mukti (Sanskrit: मुक्ति) is the ultimate, most important goal in Hinduism. In one school Moksha means liberation from sorrow, suffering and saṃsāra (birth-rebirth cycle).  In other schools of Hinduism, such as monistic, moksha means self-realization,"realizing the whole universe as the Self".
Karma and samsara[change | change source]
Main article: Karma
Karma means action, work, or deed, and also the vedic theory of cause and effect". The theory is a combination of (1) causality that may be moral or non-moral; (2) moralization, that is good or bad actions have consequences; and (3) rebirth. Karma theory means ''Whatever experience currently a man have is due to his/her past work''. These actions may be in a person's current life, or, in some schools of Hinduism, actions in their past lives. This cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth is called samsara. Liberation from samsara through moksha is believed to ensure lasting happiness and peace. Hindu scriptures teach that the future depends on the current action and and our past deeds.
Moksha[change | change source]
The ultimate goal of life,according to Hinduism is moksha, nirvana or samadhi, but is understood in different ways in different schools.For example, Advaita Vedanta says that after attaining moksha a person knows their "soul, self" and identifies it as one with Brahman (Ultimate reality or cause of everything). The followers of Dvaita (dualistic) schools,state that after attaining moksha a person identify "soul, self" different from Brahman but very close to Brahman, and after attaining moksha one will spend eternity in a loka (higher planes). According to theistic schools of Hinduism, moksha is liberation from samsara, while for other schools such as the monistic school, moksha is possible in current life and is a psychological concept.
Concept of God[change | change source]
Main articles: Ishvara and God in Hinduism
Hinduism is diverse and a Hinduism include monotheism, polytheism, panentheism, pantheism, pandeism, monism, and atheism among others;[web 3] Basically it depends on individuals choice and that's why sometimes Hinduism is referred to as henotheistic (i.e., involving devotion to a single god while accepting the existence of others), but any such term is an over generalization.
Hindus believe that all living creatures have a soul. This soul or true "self" of every living being is called the ātman. The soul is believed to be eternal. According to the monistic/pantheistic (non-dualist) theologies of Hinduism (such as Advaita Vedanta school), this Atman is indistinct from Brahman. The goal of life, according to the Advaita school, is to realise that one's soul is identical to supreme soul, that the supreme soul is present in everything and everyone, all life is interconnected and there is oneness in all life.Dualistic schools (see Dvaita and Bhakti) sees Brahman as a Supreme Being separate from individual souls. They worship the Supreme Being variously as Vishnu, Brahma, Shiva, or Shakti, depending upon the sect. God is called Ishvara, Bhagavan, Parameshwara, Deva or Devi, and these terms have different meanings in different schools of Hinduism.
The Hindu scriptures refer to celestial entities called Devas (or devī in feminine form; devatā used synonymously for Deva in Hindi), which in English means demi-gods or heavenly beings.[note 12] The devas are an integral part of Hindu culture and are depicted in art, architecture and through icons, and stories about them are related in the scriptures, particularly in Indian epic poetry and the Puranas. They are, however, often distinguished from Ishvara, a personal god, with many Hindus worshipping Ishvara in one of its particular manifestations as their iṣṭa devatā, or chosen ideal. The choice is a matter of individual preference, and of regional and family traditions.[note 13] The multitude of Devas are considered as manifestations of Brahman.[note 14]
Main traditions[change | change source]
Main article: Hindu denominations
Hinduism has no central doctrinal authority and Hindus do not claim to belong to any particular sect or tradition. Four major sects in Hinduism are: Vaishnavism, Shaivism, Shaktism and Smartism.
Vaishnavism is the tradition that worships Vishnu and his avatars, such as Krishna and Rama. The people of this sect are generally non-ascetic, monastic. These practices include community dancing, singing of Kirtans and Bhajans, with sound and music believed by some to have meditative and spiritual powers.
Shaivism is the tradition that focuses on Shiva. Shaivas are more attracted to ascetic individualism, and it has several sub-schools. Their practices include Bhakti-style devotion but they leaned to philosply such as Advaita and Yoga. Some Shaivas worship in temples, but some practice yoga, striving to be one with Shiva within. Shaivas visualize god as half male, half female, as a combination of the male and female principles (Ardhanarishvara). Shaivism is related to Shaktism, wherein Shakti is seen as wife of Shiva. Shaivism is mainly practiced in the Himalayan north from Kashmir to Nepal, and in south India.
Shaktism focuses on goddess worship of Shakti or Devi as cosmic mother, and it is mainly worshipped in northeastern and eastern states of India such as Assam and Bengal. Devi is depicted as in gentler forms like Parvati, the consort of Shiva; or, as warrior goddesses like Kali and Durga. Community celebrations include festivals, some of which include processions and idol immersion into sea or other water bodies.
Smartism worship all the major Hindu deities like Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Ganesha, Surya and Skanda. The Smarta tradition developed during the (early) Classical Period of Hinduism around the beginning of the Common Era, when Hinduism emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism and local traditions. The Smarta tradition is very much same as Advaita Vedanta, and consider Adi Shankara as its founder or reformer, who considered worship of God-with-attributes (saguna Brahman) as a journey towards ultimately realizing God-without-attributes (nirguna Brahman, Atman, Self-knowledge)..
Hindu texts[change | change source]
Hindu text are world's oldest and had been written in Sanskrit and Tamil. The oldest Text is Rig Veda which is about 4000 years old.Hindu Texts can be divided in two parts:
Shruti[change | change source]
Shruti or Shruthi (Sanskrit: श्रुति; IAST: Śruti; IPA/Sanskrit: [ʃrut̪i]) in Sanskrit means "that which is heard" These ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism includes the four Vedas including its four types of attached texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads
Smriti[change | change source]
Smriti (Sanskrit: स्मृति, IAST: Smṛti), means "that which is remembered" are a body of Hindu texts. Smriti were the texts which were remembered and were spread through mouth from generation to generation. Smriti includes (the Mahābhārata and Rāmāyana), the Dharmasūtras and Dharmaśāstras (or Smritiśāstras), the Arthasaśāstras, the Purānas, the Kāvya or poetical literature.
Festivals[change | change source]
There are many Hindu Festivals celebrated throughout the world but mainly in India and Nepal. These festivals include worship, offerings to deities, fasting, rituals, fairs, charity, celebrations, Puja, etc. The festivals mainly celebrate events from Hindu mythology, changes in season, changes in Solar System. Different sects celebrate different festivals but festivals like Diwali, Holi, Shivratri, Raksha Bandhan, Janamashtmi etc are celebrated by the majority of Hindus.
History[change | change source]
Periodisation[change | change source]
Hinduism can be divided in following ages
- Prevedic religions (pre-history and Indus Valley Civilisation; until c. 1500 BCE);
- Vedic period (c. 1500–500 BCE);
- "Second Urbanisation" (c. 500–200 BCE);
- Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-1100 CE);[note 20]
- Pre-classical Hinduism (c. 200 BCE-300 CE);
- "Golden Age" (Gupta Empire) (c. 320–650 CE);
- Late-Classical Hinduism - Puranic Hinduism (c. 650–1100 CE);
- Islam and sects of Hinduism (c. 1200–1700 CE);
- Modern Hinduism (from c. 1800).
Origins[change | change source]
Origins of Hinduism is unknown but the earliest traces of Hinduism comes from Mesolithic in the sites such as the rock paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters dating to a period of 30,000 BCE or older,[note 15] as well as neolithic times.[note 16] Some of the religious practices can be considered to have originated in 4000 BCE. Several tribal religions still exist, though their practices may not resemble those of prehistoric religions.[web 4]
Varna[change | change source]
According to one view, the Varna, which later transformed into caste system during the British rule, shows how strongly many have felt about each person following his or her dharma, or destined path. Many Hindus say it goes against the true meaning of dharma. However, Varna plays a big role in Hindu society. It's later transformation as Caste system by the British rule of India lost favor and became illegal after the independence of India.
Temples[change | change source]
Puja (worship) takes place in the Mandir (temple). Mandirs vary in size from small village shrines to large buildings, surrounded by walls. People can also visit the Mandir at any time to pray and participate in the bhajans (religious songs). Hindus also worship at home and often have a special room with a shrine to particular gods.
Temple construction in India started nearly 2000 years ago. The oldest temples that were built of brick and wood no longer exist. Stone later became the preferred material. Temples marked the transition of Hinduism from the Vedic religion of ritual sacrifices to a religion of Bhakti or love and devotion to a personal deity. Temple construction and mode of worship is governed by ancient Sanskrit scriptures called agamas, of which there are several, which deal with individual deities. There are substantial differences in architecture, customs, rituals and traditions in temples in different parts of India. During the ritual consecration of a temple, the presence of the universal all-encompassing Brahman is invoked into the main stone deity of the temple, through ritual, thereby making the deity and the temple sacred and divine
Alternative cultures of worship[change | change source]
The Bhakti schools[change | change source]
The Bhakti (Devotional) school takes its name from the Hindu term that signifies a blissful, selfless and overwhelming love of God as the beloved Father, Mother, Child, or whatever relationship finds appeal in the devotee's heart. The philosophy of Bhakti seeks to tap into the universal divinity through personal form, which explains the proliferation of so many gods and goddesses in India, often reflecting the singular inclinations of small regions or groups of people. Seen as a form of Yoga, or union, it seeks to dissolve the ego in God, since consciousness of the body and limited mind as self is seen to be a divisive factor in spiritual realization. Essentially, it is God who effects all change, who is the source of all works, who acts through the devotee as love and light. 'Sins' and evil-doings of the devotee are said to fall away of their own accord, the devotee shriven, limitedness even transcended, through the love of God. The Bhakti movements rejuvenated Hinduism through their intense expression of faith and their responsiveness to the emotional and philosophical needs of India. They can rightly be said to have affected the greatest wave of change in Hindu prayer and ritual since ancient times.
The most popular means of expressing love for God in the Hindu tradition has been through puja, or ritual devotion, frequently using the aid of a murti (statue) in conjunction with the singing or chanting of meditational prayer in the form of mantras.
Devotional songs called bhajans (written primarily from the 14th-17th centuries), kirtan (praise), and arti (a filtered down form of Vedic fire ritual) are sometimes sung in conjunction with performance of puja. This rather organic system of devotion attempts to aid the individual in connecting with God through symbolic medium. It is said, however, that the bhakta, through a growing connection with God, is eventually able to eschew all external form and is immersed entirely in the bliss of undifferentiated Love in Truth.
Altogether, bhakti resulted in a mass of devotional literature, music and art that has enriched the world and gave India renewed spiritual impetus, one eschewing unnecessary ritual and artificial social boundaries. See bhakti yoga for more.
Tantrism[change | change source]
Main article: Tantra
According to the most famous Western Tantrik scholar, Sir John Woodroffe (pseudonym Arthur Avalon): "The Indian Tantras, which are numerous, constitute the Scripture (Shastra) of the Kaliyuga, and as such are the voluminous source of present and practical orthodox 'Hinduism'. The Tantra Shastra is, in fact, and whatever be its historical origin, a development of the Vaidika Karmakanda, promulgated to meet the needs of that age. Shiva says: 'For the benefit of men of the Kali age, men bereft of energy and dependent for existence on the food they eat, the Kaula doctrine, O auspicious one! is given' (Chap. IX., verse 12). To the Tantra we must therefore look if we would understand aright both ritual, yoga, and sadhana of all kinds, as also the general principles of which these practices are but the objective expression." (Introduction to Sir John Woodroffe's translation of "Mahanirvana Tantra.")
The word "tantra" means "treatise" or "continuum", and is applied to a variety of mystical, occult, medical and scientific works as well as to those which we would now regard as "tantric". Most tantras were written in the late Middle Ages and sprang from Hindu cosmology and Yoga.
Important symbolism and themes in Hinduism[change | change source]
Ahimsa and the cow[change | change source]
Many Hindus are vegetarians (do not eat meat) because of their respect for life. About 30% of today's Hindu population, especially in orthodox communities in South India, in certain northerly states like Gujarat, and in many Brahmin areas around the subcontinent, are vegetarian.
Most Hindus who do eat meat do not eat beef. Some do not even use leather products. This is most likely because many Hindus have relied so heavily on the cow for all sorts of dairy products, tilling of fields and fuel for fertiliser that its status as a willing 'caretaker' of humanity grew to identifying it as an almost motherly figure. Thus, while most Hindus do not worship the cow, and rules against eating beef arose long after the Vedas had been written, it still has an honored place in Hindu society. It is said that Krishna is both Govinda (herder of cows) and Gopala (protector of cows), and Shiva's attendant is Nandi, the bull. With the stress on vegetarianism (which is usually followed even by meat-eating Hindus on religious days or special occasions) and the sacred nature of the cow, it is no wonder that most holy cities and areas in India have a ban on selling meat-products and there is a movement among Hindus to ban cow-slaughter not only in specific regions, but in all of India.
Hindu symbols[change | change source]
Hindus use many symbols and signs. The two most important symbols used by Hindus are the "Aum" and the "Swastika (Hinduism)".
Forms of worship: murtis and mantras[change | change source]
Contrary to popular belief, practiced Hinduism is neither polytheistic nor strictly monotheistic. The various Hindu gods and avatars that are worshipped by Hindus are understood as different forms of One truth, sometimes seen as beyond a mere god and as a formless Divine Ground (Brahman), akin but not limited to monism, or as one monotheistic principle like Vishnu or Shiva.
Whether believing in the One source as formless (nirguna brahman, without attributes) or as a personal god (saguna Brahman, with attributes), Hindus understand that the one truth may be seen as different to different people. Hinduism encourages devotees to describe and develop a personal relationship with their chosen deity (ishta devata) in the form of a god or goddess.
While some censuses hold worshippers of one form or another of Vishnu (known as Vaishnavs) to be at 80% and those of Shiva (called Shaivaites) and Shakti at the remaining 20%, such figures are perhaps misleading. The vast majority of Hindus worship many gods as varicolored forms of the same prism of Truth. Among the most popular are Vishnu (as Krishna or Rama), Shiva, Devi (the Mother as many female deities, such as Lakshmi, Saraswati, Kali and Durga), Ganesha, Skanda and Hanuman.
Worship of the said deities is often done through the aid of pictures or icons (murti) which are said not to be God themselves but conduits for the devotee's consciousness, markers for the human soul that signify the ineffable and illimitable nature of the love and grandeur of God. They are symbols of the greater principle, representing and are never presumed to be the concept or entity itself. Thus, Hindu image worship is a form of iconolatry, in which the symbols are venerated as putative sigils of divinity, as opposed to idolatry, a charge often levied (erroneously) at Hindus. For more details on this form of worship, see murti.
Mantra[change | change source]
Hindus use several prayers and group of words. Some group of words are called mantras. These words are said to give the speaker a deeper concentration and understanding, thus coming closer to Brahman. A well known mantra is om or aum. It symbolizes Brahman, and is often the opening word in many prayers. To pronounce a mantra well, you should say it slowly, and in a deep voice.
Geographic distribution[change | change source]
The nations of India, Mauritius, and Nepal as well as the Indonesian island of Bali have more people who are Hindus than people who are not Hindus.In these nations, specially Nepal and India Hinduism is very popular. These countries also have many Hindus:
- Bangladesh (12 million),
- Sri Lanka (2.5 million),
- the United States (2.0 million)
- Pakistan (3.3 million),
- South Africa (1.2 million),
- the United Kingdom (1.2 million),
- Malaysia (1.1 million),
- Canada (0.7 million),
- Fiji (0.5 million),
- Trinidad and Tobago (0.5 million),
- Guyana (0.4 million),
- the Netherlands (0.4 million),
- Singapore (0.3 million)
- Myanmar (0.3 million),
- Suriname (0.2 million),
- Australia (0.1 Million).
There are also strong Hindu communities in the countries of the ex-Soviet Union, especially in Russia and Poland. The Indonesian islands of Java, Sulawesi, Sumatra, and Borneo also have big native Hindu populations. In its Yoga stream, Hinduism is even more widespread all over the world with 30 million (less than one percent can not be 30 million for US population) Hindus in the United States alone.
References[change | change source]
- ↑Kurien, Prema (2006). "Multiculturalism and American Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian Americans". Social Forces (Johns Hopkins University Press) 85 (2): 723–741. doi:10.1353/sof.2007.0015.
- ↑FL Bakker (1997). "Balinese Hinduism and the Indonesian State: Recent Developments". Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Brill) Deel 153, 1ste Afl.: 15–41.
- ↑Noble, Allen (1998). "South Asian Sacred Places". Journal of Cultural Geography (Routledge) 17 (2): 1–3. doi:10.1080/08873639809478317.
- ↑Bowker 2000; Harvey 2001, p. xiii;
- ↑Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12; Flood 1996, p. 16; Lockard 2007, p. 50
- ↑Zaehner, R. C. (1992). Hindu Scriptures. Penguin Random House. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-0679410782.
- ↑ 14.014.1Klostermaier, Klaus (2007). A Survey of Hinduism (3rd ed.). State University of New York Press. pp. 46–52, 76–77. ISBN 978-0791470824.
- ↑Frazier, Jessica (2011). The Continuum companion to Hindu studies. London: Continuum. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-0-8264-9966-0.
- ↑ 16.016.1Bilimoria; et al., eds. (2007). Indian Ethics: Classical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges. p. 103. See also Koller, John (1968). "Puruṣārtha as Human Aims". Philosophy East and West18 (4): 315–319. doi:10.2307/1398408.
- ↑ 17.017.1Flood, Gavin (1997). "The Meaning and Context of the Puruṣārthas". In Lipner, Julius J. The Bhagavadgītā for Our Times. Oxford University Press. pp. 11–27. ISBN 978-0195650396.
- ↑Herbert Ellinger (1996). Hinduism. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 69–70.
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Introduction Hinduism is a religion that originated in India and is still
practiced by most of the Natives as well as the people who have migrated from
India to other parts of the world. Statistically there are over seven hundred
million Hindus, mainly in Bharat, India and Nepal. Eighty five percent of the
population in India is Hindu. The word Hindu comes from an ancient Sanskrit term
meaning "dwellers by the Indus River," referring to the location of India's
earliest know civilization, the Pakistan. There is not much organization and
hierarchy is nonexistent. The religion suggests commitment to or respect for an
ideal way of life know as Dharma. Hinduism absorbs foreign ideas and beliefs
making it have a wide variety of beliefs and practices. This has given it a
character of social and doctrinal system that extends to every aspect of life.
The Hindus own definition of their community is "those who believe in Vedas."
History/Origin The practices and beliefs of Hinduism cannot be understood
without knowing the background. Hinduism is the worlds oldest religion, it
dates back more than 3,000 years. Hinduism is unique in the fact that it has no
founder. Its origins are lost in a very distant past. In 1500 BC the Indo-Aryan
tribes invaded India and took over the Mahenjo-daro. From the combination of
these two tribes came the worship of goddesses. The Hindus started practices
such as bathing in temple tanks and the postures of yoga. Soon gods of war
started being created and worshipped. Sakas then began invading the Hindus and
made a large impact on the religion. The sacred temples started to be built and
the sacred laws were codified and myths and legends were preserved in the
Puranas. Soon great devotional movements began and ways of religion practice
evolved and are still used today. In the medieval times the Hindus evolved into
having philosophers, plays and music with their religion. A man named Chaitanya
came into power and claimed to have a god reincarnated inside of him. In the
19th century, movements to reconcile traditional Hinduism with the social
reforms and political ideas of the day took place. Many people where sent out
to Europe and Asia preaching and spreading the religion. Throughout all these
periods of time, the religion mutated and changed to fit with the times and as
it did it just kept gathering more and more followers.
Hinduism Today Today there are numerous self proclaimed teachers who have
migrated to Europe and the United States, where they have inspired large
followings. In India Hinduism thrives despite all the reforms and shortcuts
made in the practicing due to the gradual modernization and urbanization of
Hindu life. Hinduism continues to serve vital function by giving passionate
meaning to the Hindus of today.
Beliefs and Practices
Caste System The ideal way of life is referred to as the "duties of one's class
and station". In the phrase the word class is changed to CASTE. The ancient
texts tell of four great classes, or castes: the Brahmins, or priests; the
Ksatriyas, or warriors and rulers; the Vaisayas, or merchants and farmers; and
the Sudras, or peasants and laborers. A fifth class, Panchamas, or untouchables,
are people whose jobs make them touch unclean or unholy objects. In the new
society the system is harder to work with but in the past the caste was very
strict and kept different people in different classes very distinctly.
Stages of Life
The sacred texts also outline four ideal stages, or stations of life, each with
its own duty. The first stage is studentship (brahmacarya). This stage lasts
from initiation into the religion at 5 years of age to marriage at 13 years of
age. The second stage, householdership (grihasthya) is during marriage, raising
a family, and taking part in the society. The third stage, forest dwelling
(vanaprasthya), is after the kids have grown and gone. The fourth and final
stage is renunciation (samnyasa). It is when one gives up attachment to all
worldly things and seeks spiritual liberation. Besides the duties from the
class and station, there are also general duties (sanatanadharma). These
include honesty, courage, service, faith, self-control, purity, and nonviolence.
The classes and stations only apply to male Hindus.
Purpose of Life The purpose of life is to respect the ideal way of life. There
are also two other lesser purposes which are, enjoyment of desires and artha, or
Karma and Rebirth A popular belief in Hinduism is Transmigration of souls, or
samsara. Samsara is the passage of a soul from body to body as determined by
the force of one's actions, or karma. The strict karma theory specifies that a
person's type of birth, length of life, and life experiences are determined by
one's previous acts. Yoga is a ritual used to assure rebirth.
Philosophy Hinduism has six philosophical systems. The systems called Nyaya,
Vaisheshika, Samkhya, and Yoga emphasize the understanding of basic principles
of metaphysics and epistemology. Nyaya in addition includes an analysis of logic.
The systems called Mimamsa identify the performance of ritual. The many Vedanta
systems emphasize understanding of the relationship between the self and
Hindu Deities (gods) The Hindus believe the universe is populated with many gods.
These gods behave much as humans do and are related much like humans are. This
view is very similar to the ancient Greek theories. The supreme gods Brahma,
Vishnu, and Shiva are often viewed with the relations they have with female
deities. The females are called Shakti. The gods are ranked by how closely
they are related to the supreme gods. All the gods have duties but the supreme
gods control the destiny. Each god has its own part of the year when it is
worshipped and own style that it gets worshipped in.
Worship Typical Hindu daily worship includes a stop at several shrines, a visit
to the temple, and home worship. A Hindu may be devoted to several gods but
there can only be one shrine in the family house and it must be devoted to just
one god. To worship another god they must go to the nearby temple. Because
everything is sacred in a Hindu's eyes, almost anything may be considered worthy
of worship, such as rivers, cowpens, etc. During worship everything must be
purified through fire, water, and drawing symbolic diagrams. Depending on a
Hindu's class and station, the requirements for worship change. But they must
offer food, flowers, and incense to the deity, as well as say the appropriate
recitations of sacred words or text.
Festivals Certain festival days are celebrated throughout the Hindu society on a
fixed day according to the Hindu lunisolar calendar. One festival is Dipavali,
the "Festival of Lights" occurring in October and November. On this day lamps
are placed around the house to welcome Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity. Holi,
a spring festival in February and March, is a day of fun making, involving
temporary suspension of a persons class or caste and social distinctions.
Practical jokes are the purpose of the day. In fall, is a ten-day period set
aside to honor the Mother Goddess, a day of processions and celebrations.
Sacred Texts The ultimate series of books is the Vedas. The Vedas are the rules
which the Hindu people follow. The oldest of the four Vedas is the Rig-Veda,
which is made from an ancient form. This text was composed between 1300 and 1000
BC and contains 1028 hymns dedicated to many different gods. Other Vedas books
are the Yajur-Veda (the text book for sacrifice), the Sama-Veda (a hymnal), and
the Atharva-Veda (a collection of magic spells). The Atharva-Veda was probably
added around 900 BC. The rituals for worship were also written down so that
they would always be done correctly and never forgotten.
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